报告题目：Rules As Reference Points In Organizations
Rules in organizations may be rigid or flexible. What are the benefits and costs of the rigid and flexible rules? Flexible rules allowing more discretion for agents may bring about more motivations for innovations. Rigid rules could improve ex-post efficiencies by reducing shading cost when agents have different reference points according to the rules. We introduce the theory of “contracts as reference points” into organizations and explain why large firms or organizations tend to formulate more rigid rules, and small businesses tend to develop flexible rules, and why small businesses usually provide agents with more motivations for innovations than large firms. This model also provides an explanation for the recently more popular organizations of innovative platforms.